History of Scotland and Ireland

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Introduction
About this program
History Program Index
Ancient Monuments of Scotland and Ireland
The Romans in Scotland
The Picts of Scotland
The Vikings in Scotland and Ireland
The Gaels: History, Art, and Mythology
The Gaels: Consequences of Empire

Introduction

When I started learning Scottish Gaelic language in 1993, I didn’t know much about the history of Scotland and Ireland. I began exploring on my own, and what I’ve learned became a 6 course program, which includes:

– Ancient Monuments of Scotland and Ireland
– The Romans in Scotland
– The Picts of Scotland
– The Vikings in Scotland and Ireland
– The Gaels: History, Art, and Mythology
– The Gaels: Consequences of Empire

I may offer these classes online from time-to-time. You can get notifications by submitting your email address for notifications on the right side of the page.

As time goes on, I intend to put the index to these courses online (on this page-see below), along with the materials. It is going to take a while to take six years of course development, and many years longer of research, organized and online. I hope you’ll follow along or check back from time to time.

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About this program

It is not possible for me, or this program, to be all things to all people. Many historians and other researchers spend multi-decade-long careers examining specific parts of history in great detail. You can find detailed and extensive research at libraries and online regarding any points that interest you. I am not attempting to replicate that here. My goal with this program is to provide a general overview of history that could spur further explorations by audience members and, perhaps, shine light on an often overlooked part of history. I might even suggest that the overlooking of parts of history might be an intentional act on the part of what I refer to as “the default narrative.”

Also, while I am always interested in learning more myself about topics I find interesting, as well as receiving constructive feedback on my presentations, I am not interested in engaging in online ‘flame-wars’ or other discussions lacking in the citation of evidence. Anyone who comes at me in this way will likely not get a response. The selections I’ve made in what to include here I’ve made for many reasons, and these reasons will probably not be obvious. A lot of thought goes into program organization and editing, and this project has taken years of effort to get to the state that it is currently in. I’m not finished yet, either.

With that being said, here we go.

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History Program Index

Ancient Monuments of Scotland and Ireland

1.1 Session 1: Before written history

[001] 1.1.1 The Mesolithic Era – 11000 to 4500 BCE – Hunter-Gatherers
[002] 1.1.2 The Early Neolithic Era – 4500 to 3700 BCE – Arrival of Farmers
[003] 1.1.3 The Middle Neolithic Era – 3700 to 3000 BCE – Rock Art and the Largest Monuments
[004] 1.1.4 The Late Neolithic Era – 3000 to 2400 BCE – Complexes of Monuments
[005] 1.1.5 The Early Bronze Age – 2400 – 1160 BCE – The Beaker People Continue Monument Making
[006] 1.1.6 After the Bronze Age Collapse, c. 1160 BCE – Everything changes (cue up the ‘Celts’)

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The Romans in Scotland

2.1 Session 2: The Iron Age Celts

[007] 2.1.1 Defining the Celts
[008] 2.1.2 Classifying Celtic Art and Artifacts
[009] 2.1.3 The Celtic Expansion, c. 1200 to 264 BCE
[010] 2.1.4 The Roman Conquest, 264 BCE to 79 CE

2.2 Session 3: The Romans in Scotland

[011] 2.2.1 The First Caledonian Invasion, 79 CE
[012] 2.2.2 The Second Caledonian Invasion, 138 CE
[013] 2.2.3 The Third Caledonian Invasion, 208 CE
[014] 2.2.4 Later Roman Invasions of Caledonia, after 306 to 410 CE

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The Picts of Scotland

3.1 Session 4: The Picts of Scotland

[015] 3.1.1 DePICTions – The use and abuse of a people
[016] 3.1.2 Origins of the Picts
[017] 3.1.3 The Picts and the Romans
[018] 3.1.4 The Picts and their neighbors
[019] 3.1.5 Pictish Culture: Settlements
[020] 3.1.6 Pictish Culture: Language and Visual Arts
[021] 3.1.7 Christian conversion of the Picts
[022] 3.1.8 ‘Disappearance’ of the Picts

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The Vikings in Scotland and Ireland

4.1 Session 5: The Viking World

[023] 4.1.1 Who were the Vikings – Origins
[024] 4.1.2 Germanic tribes and Rome – The Age of Migrations
[025] 4.1.3 The Viking Age Begins
[026] 4.1.4 Shipbuilding – The Key
[027] 4.1.5 Eastward Trade
[028] 4.1.6 Westward Exploration
[029] 4.1.7 England
[030] 4.1.8 Vikings in Europe
[031] 4.1.9 Pre-Christian Culture: Burials
[032] 4.1.10 Pre-Christian Culture: Visual Arts
[033] 4.1.11 Pre-Christian Culture: Poetry, Religion and Mythology
[034] 4.1.12 Conversion to Christianity

4.2 Session 6: Vikings in Scotland and Ireland

[035] 4.2.1 Viking effects: Language, DNA, Women
[036] 4.2.2 Scotland: The Northern Isles
[037] 4.2.3 Scotland: Alt Clut/Strathclyde
[038] 4.2.4 Scotland: The Hebrides and Man
[039] 4.2.5 Ireland

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The Gaels: History, Art, and Mythology

5.1 Session 7: The end of Roman Britain to the death of Somerled, 410 to 1165 CE

[040] 5.1.1 Origin Stories: Irish Mythology
[041] 5.1.2 Historical Origins
[042] 5.1.3 The Saints and Irish Monasticism
[043] 5.1.4 Insular Celtic Art
[044] 5.1.5 Invasions and Migrations
[045] 5.1.6 Dàl Riata to Alba
[046] 5.1.7 Introduction to early Gaelic Society
[047] 5.1.8 Outside Domination: Normans and Norwegians

5.2 Session 8: The death of Somerled to the Union of the Crowns, 1165 to 1603 CE

[048] 5.2.1 The Norman Invasion of Ireland
[049] 5.2.2 The Kingdom/Lordship of the Isles
[050] 5.2.3 Clanship and Society
[051] 5.2.4 The Kingdom of Ireland
[052] 5.2.5 Appendix: Scotland in Crisis
[053] 5.2.6 Appendix: The Stuarts and Tudors

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The Gaels: Consequences of Empire

6.1 Session 9: Introduction to Empire

[054] 6.1.1 Conceptualizing Empires
[055] 6.1.2 Terminology
[056] 6.1.3 Early Empires
[057] 6.1.4 Trade Networks
[058] 6.1.5 Origins of recent European Empires
[059] 6.1.6 English Origin Mythology
[060] 6.1.7 Appendix: Empires within Britain and Ireland
[061] 6.1.8 Appendix: Origins of the British Empire
[062] 6.1.9 Appendix: The Other ‘Celtic’ Nations

6.2 Session 10: The 1600s – A Century of Transition

[063] 6.2.1 Empire in the 1600s
[064] 6.2.2 Review and an overview of the 1600s
[065] 6.2.3 The Union of the Crowns
[066] 6.2.4 Plantations in Ireland and Elsewhere
[067] 6.2.5 The Origins of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (to 1649)
[068] 6.2.6 The Conclusion of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms
[069] 6.2.7 The Origins of the Highland Clearances
[070] 6.2.7 The Restoration & Succession

6.3 Session 11: The Jacobite Uprisings

[071] 6.3.1 The Uprisings and Empire
[072] 6.3.2 The Glorious Revolution and the origins of Jacobitism
[073] 6.3.3 The Rising of 1689-1692 – Ireland to Glencoe
[074] 6.3.4 Scotland in the final years of the 17th century
[075] 6.3.5 Union of the Parliaments
[076] 6.3.6 The Rising of 1715
[077] 6.3.7 The Rising of 1719
[078] 6.3.8 The Rising of 1745

6.4 Session 12: The 1700s

[079] 6.4.1 Empire in the 1700s
[080] 6.4.2 Scotland in the 1700s, other than the Jacobite uprisings
[081] 6.4.3 The Highland Clearances accelerate
[082] 6.4.4 Ireland in the 18th century – famine and rebellion
[083] 6.4.5 Origins of the Celtic Revival

6.5 Session 13: The 1800s

[084] 6.5.1 Empire in the 1800s
[085] 6.5.2 Creating the United Kingdom
[086] 6.5.3 Later Highland Clearances
[087] 6.5.4 The Great Irish Famine
[088] 6.5.6 The Highland Land War
[089] 6.5.7 Highland Societies, Education, and Emigration
[090] 6.5.8 Irish Home Rule
[091] 6.5.9 The Celtic Revival

6.6 Session 14: The 1900s

[092] 6.6.1 Empire in the 1900s
[093] 6.6.2 Very brief overview of the 20th Century in Scotland
[094] 6.6.3 The drive for Irish home rule, 1900-1919
[095] 6.6.4 War to a republic, 1919 to 1949
[096] 6.6.5 Northern Ireland – The Troubles, 1969 to 1997
[097] 6.6.6 The conclusion of the Celtic Revival
[098] 6.6.7 Representation after the Celtic Revival

6.7 Session 15: The 2000s

[099] 6.7.1 Empire in the 2000s
[100] 6.7.2 Contemporary Issues – Introduction
[101] 6.7.3 Contemporary Issues – Identity
[102] 6.7.4 Contemporary Issues – Land
[103] 6.7.5 Contemporary Issues – Language & Education
[104] 6.7.6 Contemporary Issues – Commerce

The story continues…

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